The p53 mediated apoptosis pathway is one of the major apoptosis signaling pathways involving the stimulation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways by the p53 protein. This pathway plays a central role in determining cell fate, especially in response to DNA damage. The p53 molecule is a major tumor suppressor gene that plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation. When a p53 protein is present, it regulates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest and induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Mutations in the p53 gene or its regulation can lead to uncontrolled growth and transformation. In addition, these P53 Mediated mutations can lead to resistance to the death signal, making the cell resistant to apoptosis. When cells are damaged, p53 is activated and triggers cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. In addition, p53 can directly induce apoptosis by either increasing the production of p53 and activating the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bim or inducing the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-Xs, Bcl-Xl, Mcl-Xs and Mcl-Xl.
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